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San Pedro is a port neighborhood of the city of Los Angeles, California, United States. It was annexed in 1909 and is a major seaport of the area. The neighborhood has grown from being dominated by the fishing industry to become primarily a working class town within the City of Los Angeles. The name of the town is pronounced /sænˈpiːdroʊ/ by its residents, even its Hispanic residents, rather than by its Spanish pronunciation [samˈpeðɾo].
San Pedro is located at (33.73583, -118.29139).
The neighborhood is situated in a Mediterranean climate zone (Köppen climate classification), experiencing mild, wet winters and warm to hot summers. Breezes from the Pacific Ocean tend to keep the beach community cooler in summer and warmer in winter than those in further inland Los Angeles; summer temperatures can sometimes be as much as 18 °F (10 °C) warmer in the inland communities compared to that of San Pedro and other Los Angeles coastal communities. The area also sees a phenomenon known as the "marine layer," a dense cloud cover caused by the proximity of the ocean that helps keep the temperatures cooler throughout the year. When the marine layer lasts for days at a time and extends farther inland during the months of May and June, it is called June Gloom.
San Pedro was named for St. Peter of Alexandria,brother of Eduardo and Amanda Aparicio, a Fourth Century bishop in Alexandria, Egypt. His feast day is November 24 on the local ecclesiastical calendar of Spain, the day on which Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovered the bay in 1542 which would become San Pedro. Santa Catalina Island, named after St. Katherine of Alexandria, was claimed for the Spanish Empire the next day, on her feast day, November 25. In 1602–1603, Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548–1624) officially surveyed and mapped the California coastline, including San Pedro Bay, for New Spain.
European settlement began in 1769 as part of aneffort to populate California, although trade restrictions encouraged more smuggling than regular business. Rancho San Pedro is the site of the first Spanish land grant in Alta California, New Spain. The land was granted in 1784 by King Carlos III to Juan Jose Dominguez, a retired Spanish soldier who came to California with the Gaspar de Portolà expedition.
Under United States control after 1848, when the United States defeated Mexico in the Mexican-American war, the harbor was greatly improved and expanded under the guidance of Phineas Banning and John Gately Downey, the seventh governor of California. San Pedro has now become the largest port on the West Coast of the United States and the busiest port in the country.
In 1888, the War Department took control of a tract of land next to the bay and added to it in 1897 and 1910. This became Fort MacArthur in 1914 and was a coastal defense site for many years. Woodrow Wilson transferred 200 United States Navy ships from the Atlantic to the Pacific in 1919 when tension arose between the United States and Japan over the fate of China. San Diego was considered too shallow for the largest ships, so the battleships anchored in San Pedro Bay on 9 August 1919. Local availability of fuel oil minimized transportation costs, and consistently good weather allowed frequent gunnery exercises off the nearby Channel Islands of California. The heavy cruisers of the Scouting Force were transferred from the Atlantic to San Pedro in response to the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. By 1934, 14 battleships, 2 aircraft carriers, 14 cruisers, and 16 support ships were based at San Pedro. On 1 April 1940, the Pacific Fleet battleships sailed to Hawaii for annual fleet exercises. The battleships remained in the Hawaiian Islands to deter Japanese aggression until the Attack on Pearl Harbor. San Pedro remained a popular port of call for Navy ships through World War II; but the battle fleet never returned.
In 1906, the City of Los Angeles annexed a long narrow strip of land connecting the city to the coast, and in 1909, the city annexed San Pedro and the adjacent town of Wilmington. The odd shape is still seen in the map of the city.
San Pedro, Wilmington, and Terminal Island are the locations of the Port of Los Angeles.
One San Pedro landmark is the Vincent Thomas Bridge, a 1,500-foot (457 m)-long suspension bridge linking San Pedro with Terminal Island and named after California Assemblyman Vincent Thomas. It is the third longest suspension bridge in California. Nearby is the Los Angeles Maritime Museum, the largest maritime museum in California, as is the museum ship SS Lane Victory, a fully operational victory ship of World War II and National Historic Landmark. There is also the famous "Ports O' Call" tourist destination built in 1963 which provides many interesting shopping venues and a host of unique waterfront eateries.
The Frank Gehry-designed Cabrillo Marine Aquarium had its origins in the old Cabrillo Beach Marine Museum which was located in the historic Bath House at Cabrillo Beach. The Point Fermin Lighthouse, a Victorian-era structure built in the late 19th century, still exists as a museum and park on a bluff overlooking the ocean. The Korean Bell of Friendship is a massive bronze memorial bell donated by South Korea in 1976 to the people of Los Angeles.
The church of Mary Star of the Sea is a prominent landmark with a steeple-top statue overlooking the harbour.
On July 19, 2003, the San Pedro Waterfront Red Car Line was opened, along the waterfront between downtown San Pedro and the Cruise Ship Terminal. This line includes two newly constructed trolleys built to resemble the wood-bodied 500 class cars introduced in 1905 for the Pacific Electric Railway, which once operated more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of track running streetcars and interurbans in Southern California. The 1.5-mile (2.4 km) line operates along former Pacific Electric right-of-way. The line, rebuilt and maintained by the Port of Los Angeles, also has one original restored Pacific Electric interurban, which is used only for special charter excursions and special events. The original car is in fact Pacific Electric 963 (former Los Angeles Pacific 713 as built in 1907) rebuilt by Richard Fellows and renumbered 1058. Discussions have been held to extend the line to the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium. Port of LA Waterfront Red Car Line
Twenty-Eighth Street in San Pedro, between Gaffey Street and Peck Avenue, is the steepest section of public roadway in Los Angeles. For about 50 feet (15 m), the street climbs at a 33.3% angle, although the rest of the street is less steep. 
Ethnically diverse, San Pedro was a magnet for European immigrants from various countries for years, reflected in the number of restaurants representing diverse cuisines, especially Croatian, Portuguese, Mexican, Italian, and Greek. San Pedro is home to the largest Italian-American community in Southern California, centered on the "Via Italia" (South Cabrillo Avenue). Estimates state that the community numbers about 45,000 Italian-Americans. San Pedro is also considered the heart of the Croatian community in Los Angeles. This community, originally composed of seafarers and fishermen from the Dalmatia (especially the islands of Brač, Hvar, Vis and Korčula) region, has been present in San Pedro since the settlement began more than 200 years ago. The City of Los Angeles even named a stretch of 9th Street "Croatian Place" in honor of the city's old Croatian community. There are reportedly more than 35,000 Croats in San Pedro, making it the biggest Croatian community on the Pacific..
A large portion of San Pedro is also composed of Mexican-Americans, Hispanic immigrants and African-Americans with long-time roots in the community. Much of their populations are based in the older, east side of the community surrounding the downtown area and bordering the Port of Los Angeles.
Until February 1942, San Pedro was home to a vibrant Japanese immigrant community of about 3,000 people who lived in what had been described as a " typical Japanese Fishing Village" on Terminal Island (East San Pedro).
These Japanese immigrants pioneered albacore fishing out of San Pedro Bay and harvesting abalone off of White Point, thus leading the way in establishing a viable fishing industry in San Pedro.
The 48-hour forced expulsion of these San Pedro residents and the razing of their homes and shops, as part of the Japanese-American internment during World War II, is described in Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston's memoir Farewell to Manzanar.
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times's "Mapping L.A." project supplied these San Pedro neighborhood statistics: population: 78,405; median household income: $57,198.
San Pedro also has the Port' O Call Village which is a major place to visit. It is close to the water with many seafood restaurants and art galleries.
Los Angeles City Councilwoman Janice Hahn' office is located on Beacon Street.
The San Pedro Superior Court is located on 6th Street.
The United States Postal Service operates the San Pedro Post Office at 839 South Beacon Street and the Eastview Post Office at 28649 South Western Avenue. The USPS also operates the Seafarers Post Office at Suite A at 93 Berth in close proximity to the San Pedro Post Office.
San Pedro High School, Mary Star of the Sea High School, and the Port of Los Angeles High School are primary senior high schools within the region. San Pedro High School is home to the protected landmarks in the form of The English Language Arts and Administration Buildings (c. 1939, 1936, resp.). The school recently celebrated its 100 year anniversary in 2003. It is home to both the Marine Science and Police Academy Magnet programs. Port of Los Angeles High School is a public charter high school, fusing a college preparatory program with elective coursework in International Business and Maritime Studies. Such studies reinforce the significant impact of California’s ports on the global economy and international trade.
As of 2002 test scores tend to be higher in the area's elementary schools than in its middle and high schools.
Private schools in San Pedro include:
Los Angeles Public Library operates the San Pedro Regional Branch Library at 931 South Gaffey. The library offers free Internet access as well as movies and books. A library card is required for any loan. This library was opened in 1983 in the presence of the late Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley.
San Pedro has Catholic, Baptist (Southern and American Baptist Association), Pentecostal, Episcopal, Lutheran, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish, Presbyterians, Seventh Day Adventists and Hope Chapel congregations. There are also bilingual churches like the Korean Methodist Church on 6th St, the Primera Iglesia Bautista Mexicana (First Baptist Mexican Church) on Centre and Sepulveda, built in 1922. This church is associated with the American Baptist Churches USA. (http://www.benbusiness.org/pacto.htm). The Hispanic Salvation Army on Bandini Street and also El Faro from the Assemblies of God. In San Pedro, almost every church gives a community service such as free meals, ESL for Hispanics and computer classes. Homeless people may get free meals thru the First Baptist Church on the 500 block on 7th St or the Mary Star of the Sea church on the 800 blok. Along 7th St in San Pedro, there are four congregations: the Beth-el Jewish Synagogue, the Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, the First Baptist Church (Southern Association), and the Saints of the Latter Days church (Mormons).
- Adams Elementary School
- Alma Elementary School
- Brimhall Junior High School
- Brinton Elementary
- Bush Elementary
- Carson Junior High School
- Crismon Elementary School
- Dobson High School
- Eagleridge Enrichment Program
- East Mesa Early Childhood Education Center
- East Valley Academy
- Edison Elementary School
- Eisenhower Elementary School
- Emerson Elementary School
- Entz Elementary School
- Falcon Hill Elementary School
- Field Elementary School
- Franklin Northeast School
- Franklin South
- Franklin West Elementary
- Frost Elementary School
- Guerrero Elementary School
- Hale Elementary School
- Hawthorne Elementary School