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Medford Township was incorporated as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 1, 1847, from portions of Evesham Township, based on the results of a referendum held that day. Portions of the township were taken to form Shamong Township (February 19, 1852), Lumberton Township (March 14, 1860) and Medford Lakes (May 17, 1939).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 39.8 square miles (103.1 km²). 39.3 square miles (101.8 km²) of its land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km²) of it (1.23%) is water.
Medford Lakes Borough is an independent municipality within the boundaries of Medford Township.
As of the census of 2000, there were 22,253 people, 7,946 households, and 6,285 families residing in the township. The population density was 566.0 people per square mile (218.5/km²). There were 8,147 housing units at an average density of 207.2/sq mi (80.0/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 96.74% White, 0.76% African American, 0.12% Native American, 1.47% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, and 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.13% of the population.
There were 7,946 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.8% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.9% were non-families. 17.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.16.
In the township the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 30.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $103,865, and the median income for a family was $117,215. Males had a median income of $69,786 versus $37,012 for females. The per capita income for the township was $46,859. About 0.9% of families and 1.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.1% of those under age 18 and 2.2% of those age 65 or over.
Medford Township operates under the Faulkner Act (Council-Manager) form of municipal government. The Township is governed by a five-member Council, elected at-large to four-year terms of office on a staggered basis. After each election, the Council selects a Mayor and a Deputy Mayor from among its members.
Medford Township is in the Third Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 8th Legislative District, represented by Congressman John Adler (D, Cherry Hill) elected in 2008.
New Jersey's Third Congressional District is represented by John Adler (D, Cherry Hill). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken).
8th district of the New Jersey Legislature, which is represented in the New Jersey Senate by Phil Haines (R, Springfield Township) and in the New Jersey General Assembly by Dawn Marie Addiego (R, Evesham Township) and Scott Rudder (R, Medford Township). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Burlington County is governed by a five-member Board of Chosen Freeholders, elected at-large to three-year terms on a staggered basis. As of 2010[update], Burlington County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Bruce D. Garganio (Florence Township, 2012), Deputy Director Joseph B. Donnelly (Cinnaminson Township, 2010), Christopher J. Brown (Evesham Township, 2011), Mary Ann O'Brien (Medford Township, 2012) and Mary Anne Reinhart (Shamong Township, 2011).
The Medford Township Public Schools is a K-8 grade public school district, with five elementary schools serving students in kindergarten through fifth grade, a single school serving sixth graders and a school serving seventh and eighth graders.
Schools in the district (with 2005-06 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are five K-5 elementary schools — Milton H. Allen School (388 students), Chairville Elementary School (423), Cranberry Pines School (467), Kirby's Mill Elementary School (396) and Taunton Forge School (374) — Maurice And Everett Haines 6th Grade Center School for 6th grade (346) and Medford Memorial School for 7th and 8th grade (697).
High school students attend Shawnee High School, located in Medford Township, which is part of the Lenape Regional High School District. The district serves students from Evesham Township, Medford Lakes, Medford Township, Mount Laurel Township, Shamong Township, Southampton Township, Tabernacle Township and Woodland Township. The school serves students in ninth through twelfth grade from both Medford Lakes and Medford Township.
Burlington County Institute of Technology is a countywide public high school offering training to students throughout Burlington County.
St. Mary of the Lakes School (K-8).
The area known as Medford was sold to Samual Coles in 1670, in all it consisted of 900 acres (3.6 km²). Within the next few years the Braddocks, Picketts, Strattons, Branins and Wilkins families moved to the area (many of whom continue to live in the area today). Upper Evesham as it was then known, continued to grow from scattered homesteads into a small village. Many of the building and roads built between the sale of the land and the American Revolutionary War are still in existence, which include Oliphant's Mill, Christopher's Mill and the Shamong Trail (now known as Stokes Road). After the American Revolution, Medford struggled as a viable village and it wasn't until March 1847 that Medford was set apart from Evesham Township and incorporated as its own township.
However, it was not until after the Civil War that the town began to expand and grow. Its location along a major rail route, the Camden-Atlantic line, increased trade and Medford expanded at a rapid rate. By the 1920s the rail line had been dismantled and the mill industry was in decline, but Medford's proximity to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Camden County allowed for the township's growth to continue as many families moved from the city and into a more rural area. In 1820, when the Post Office opened, the town was officially called Medford of Upper Evesham. On March 1, 1847, Medford Township was "set apart from" Evesham by Act of the New Jersey Legislature. The first township meeting was held at the Cross Roads (County Route 541 and Church Road) on March 9, 1847. The seat of township government remained there for several years.
Part of Medford Township was taken on February 19, 1852, to form Shamong Township, on March 14, 1860, portions were taken to form Lumberton Township. The borders remained unchanged until May 17, 1939, when Medford Lakes was formed.
Notable current and former residents of Medford include:
Bass River | Bordentown | Burlington | Chesterfield | Cinnaminson | Delanco | Delran | Eastampton | Edgewater Park | Evesham | Florence | Hainesport | Lumberton | Mansfield | Maple Shade | Medford | Moorestown | Mount Holly | Mount Laurel | New Hanover | North Hanover | Pemberton | Riverside | Shamong | Southampton | Springfield | Tabernacle | Washington | Westampton | Willingboro | Woodland