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La Jolla (pronounced /ləˈhɔɪ.ə/ lə-HOY-ə) is a wealthy and hilly seaside resort community, occupying 7 miles (11 km) of curving coastline along the Pacific Ocean in Southern California within the northern city limits of San Diego, California. The 2004 estimated population was 42,808. La Jolla is surrounded on three sides by ocean bluffs and beaches and is located 12 miles (19 km) north of Downtown San Diego, and 40 miles (64 km) south of Orange County California, The climate is mild, with an average daily temperature of 70.5 °F (21.4 °C) La Jolla is known for tourism and shopping.
According to U.S. Census Bureau figures, the ethnic/racial makeup of La Jolla is 82.5% white, 0.8% black, 0.2% American Indian, 11.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.0% some other race, and 3.1% two or more races. Latinos, who may be of any race, form 7.2% of La Jolla's population.
The community's border starts at Pacific Beach to the south and extends along the Pacific Ocean shoreline north to include Torrey Pines State Reserve ending at Del Mar, California. La Jolla encompasses neighborhoods including Bird Rock, Windansea Beach, the commercial center known as the Village of La Jolla, La Jolla Shores, La Jolla Farms, Muirlands, Torrey Pines, and Mount Soledad to name a few.
The City of San Diego defines the community's eastern boundary as Gilman Drive, former Highway US 101, with the exception of some of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and the northern boundary as La Jolla Village Drive.
The U.S. Postal Service defines a somewhat larger area as it assigned the community the 92037 ZIP code recognizing it as a historically and geographically distinct area. This unique ZIP code allows addresses to read La Jolla, CA and is the only community within the City of San Diego so recognized. This nomenclature leads to the erroneous conclusions that it is a separate city or that its schools are part of the "La Jolla School District". The 92037 zip code extends the northeasterly boundary to Genesee Avenue and the northerly boundary to Del Mar, California.
The La Jolla Community Planning Association  advises the City Council, Planning Commission, City Planning Department as well as other Governmental agency as appropriate in the initial preparation, adoption of, implementation of, or amendment to the General or Community Plan as it pertains to the La Jolla area as well as review specific development proposals. The nonprofit La Jolla Town Council represents the interests of La Jolla businesses and residents that belong to the Council. The Bird Rock Community Council serves the Bird Rock neighborhood, while the La Jolla Shores Association  serves the La Jolla Shores neighborhood.
Community organizations include Independent La Jolla, a membership-based citizens group seeking to secede from the city of San Diego. Service clubs in La Jolla include Kiwanis, Rotary, La Jolla Woman's Club and the Social Service League of La Jolla to name a few.
Local Native Americans, the Kumeyaay, called this location mat kulaaxuuy [mat kəlaːxuːj], 'land of holes' (mat = 'land'). What sort of topographic feature the description "holes" refers to is uncertain, but it may be the sea-level caves on the north facing bluffs which are visible from La Jolla Shores. This was apparently corrupted by the Spanish occupiers to "La Jolla". An alternate suggested origin is that the name is a corruption of the Spanish La Joya, meaning "the jewel". Although disputed by scholars, this origin of the name is widely cited in popular culture, and has given rise to the nickname "Jewel City."
From its beginnings to the early 1960s, La Jolla was marketed by developers as a bastion of isolation and exclusivity. Antisemitic housing practices began in 1926 with the development of La Jolla Shores. In La Jolla Shores and La Jolla Hermosa, only people with pure Caucasian blood could own property, and housing notices included racist comments against Jews and other minority groups. Housing restrictions were thought to be enough to keep "undesirable" ethnic groups from living in La Jolla, until the 1948 Supreme Court case Shelley v. Kraemer prohibited such restrictive covenants. After the ruling, real estate companies used less obvious tactics to keep Jewish people out of La Jolla. Real estate agents would be fired if they sold a house to Jewish clients. There were no for-sale signs put up on properties, requiring the prospective buyer to go to a real estate office to find out what was available. If an agent suspected that a potential home buyer was a Jew, they would demand higher down payments and display green cards on their dashboards marked with the Star of David to warn the seller. The sellers would also send codes to their real estate agents; if their porch lights were on during the day, they did not want Jewish buyers.
By 1962, however, La Jolla, and the non-restrictive La Jolla Scenic Heights in particular, had a substantial Jewish population due to talk of establishing UCSD in the area. The university would bring many Jewish professors, who would need to live in nearby areas such as La Jolla. In the words of UCSD patriarch Roger Revelle, "You can't have a university without having Jewish professors. The Real Estate Broker's Association and their supporters in La Jolla had to make up their minds whether they wanted a university or an anti-Semitic covenant. You couldn't have both." Today, there are three large synagogues in La Jolla, and over 60 percent of San Diego Jews live in La Jolla or farther north. Due to UCSD, La Jolla now boasts a large and thriving Jewish population.
The University of California, San Diego is the center of higher education in La Jolla. The campus's original name was UC La Jolla before it was changed to UC San Diego. UCSD includes the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the San Diego Supercomputer Center.
National University is also headquartered in La Jolla, though its San Diego campuses are located elsewhere in the city and county. Among the several research institutes near UCSD and in the nearby Torrey Pines Science Park are The Scripps Research Institute, the Burnham Institute (formerly called the La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation) and the Salk Institute.
La Jolla is served by the San Diego City Schools. Public schools include La Jolla High School, La Jolla Elementary, which was the first public school, built in 1896 with the first classes in the Heald Store at the corner of Herschel Avenue and Wall Street but then moved to its present location on Girard Avenue, Torrey Pines Elementary, and Bird Rock Elementary, as well as The Preuss School UCSD, a public charter school. The community's prep schools are The Bishop's School, which was the first private school opened in 1909, The Children's School, Integral Elementary School of La Jolla, Delphi Academy, Stella Maris Academy, All Hallows Academy, The Gillispie School, and the Evans School. La Jolla Country Day School is located in the nearby community of University City.
La Jolla, like most of Southern California, is an area of great natural beauty with a mixture of geology - sandy beaches and rocky shorelines good for a variety of outdoor activities. The area has a number of public beaches and parks, as well as shopping areas. The area is occasionally susceptible to flooding and ocean storms, as occurred in January 2010.
The most compelling geographical highlight of La Jolla is its ocean front, with alternating rugged and sandy coast line and wild seal congregations. Popular sandy beaches, dotting the coastline from the south to the north, are:
Mount Soledad is covered with the narrow roads that follow its contours and hundreds of homes overlooking the ocean on its slopes. It is the home of the large concrete Mount Soledad Easter Cross built in 1954, later designated a Korean War Memorial, that became the center of a controversy over the display of religious symbols on government property.
La Jolla is the location of Torrey Pines Golf Course, site each January or February of a PGA Tour event formerly known as the Buick Invitational and now (since 2010) called the Farmers Insurance Open. In 2008, Torrey Pines also hosted the 2008 U.S. Open. Nearby are the de facto nude beach, Black's Beach, and the Torrey Pines Gliderport.
Downtown La Jolla is noted for jewelry stores, boutiques, upmarket restaurants and hotels. Prospect Street and Girard Avenue are also shopping and dining districts.
The Museum of Contemporary Art, founded in 1941, is located just above the waterfront in what was originally the 1915 residence of philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps. The museum has a permanent collection with more than 3,500 post-1950 American and European works, including paintings, works on paper, sculptures, photographic art, design objects and video works.. The museum was renamed Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego in 1990 to recognize its regional significance.
La Jolla has been the home to many notable people, including prominent scientists, business people, artists, writers and performers.
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